Very high tenacity
Resistant to stretching and shrinkage
Resistant to most chemicals (low reactivity)
Polyester as a yarn was invented in Great Britain in 1939 and introduced to mass production in the USA in the 1940s.
Polyester yarns are produced in both a continuous / filament version and in a spun version (RING, OE, MVS).
Currently, approximately 46 million tons of all polyester yarns and fibers are produced all over the world. This represents about 51% of the world’s production of all yarns.
Polyester is formed as a result of polymerization where the basic raw materials are petroleum derivatives - MEG (monoethyl glycol) and PTA acid.
Polyester is a fiber made of a molten granule (polymer). As a result of the spinning process POY is obtained - a raw material for further processing, or ready-to-use FDY / HT plain yarn.
FDY / HT plain yarns after spinning and cooling are drawn to obtain the target physico-mechanical properties (such as tenacity and elongation) which ensures good processing on the machines.
By modifying the batch polymer and modification of the spinning and drawing process, we obtain high-tenacity (HT) plain yarns.
If more titanium dioxide (TiO2) is added to the polyester polymer then we obtain a full-dull yarn contrarily to the standard semi-dull.
By changing the filliers from round to triangular we can obtain polyester trilobal bright yarns.
If a dye is added to the polymer before spinning we will obtain polyester dope dyed yarns (POY/FDY/HT).
POY- the raw material for further processing (texturing, drawing) is spun and cooled, however it is not drawn i.e. it has high elongation and low tenacity. This type of production is not suitable for processing on weaving or knitting machines.
Crimped yarn may be obtained by using two methods:
-DTY- friction with ceramic or polyurethane discs
-ATY- using compressed air
The density of the polyester is quite high (about 1.36 g / cm3). Therefore, it is much higher than of polypropylene and polyamide.
The melting point for polyester is at about 250 degrees Celsius, hence the yarns are widely used in technical textiles wherever high temperatures are encountered.
The main properties of polyester yarns:
very high tenacity
resistance to creases
resistant to pilling
resistant to extreme weather conditions
good thermal insulation properties
polyester yarns are used for the production of outerwear (jackets, coats, sweatshirts, shoes)
sports and formal clothing
home textiles (tablecloths, curtains, drapes, floor coverings)
automotive (upholstery, seat belts)
Polyester yarns widely used in technical fabrics, industrial hoses, conveyor belts, technical belts, ropes, technical nets, industrial threads, tarpaulins and filter fabrics